Personality psychology In contemporary psychology, the Big Five Personality Inventory of personality are five broad domains or dimensions of personality which are used to describe human personality. The underlying correlations are probabilistic, and exceptions are possible. However, many studies indicate that people who are talkative are usually also assertive, which is why they go together under the broader Extraversion factor.
In reality, a manager has to use the existing resources for a given task, and must have the ability to understand the differences in individual behaviors and use them appropriately to increase the synergy.
In order to understand individual behavior and personalities, it is important to understand the basics of human cognition. Integrated human behavior model I have formulated an abstract model of human behavior which explains the process that produces the individual differences.
Cognition is the thought process in humans that describes how the information we constantly acquire is transformed, stored and used as knowledge in future decision making. It includes a wide range of mental processes like visual imagery, language, problem solving, decision making etc.
The brain receives the stimuli from the external environment through the sense, which is immediately registered in our sensory memory, which is large but keeps the information for few seconds only. The observation process tries to match the information in the sensory memory with the previous knowledge and creates a perception of the stimuli, thereby abstracting useful information from the sensory memory.
This abstracted information then passes to the short-term memory or the working memory, which also caches the related knowledge from the long-term memory.
The short-term memory has slightly longer latency than the sensory memory, it is needed only till the reaction of the stimuli. The long term memory has enormous capacity and is the primary knowledge base. The other two important parameters are the desired outcome and the required response time to the stimuli.
At the center of the analytical mind is a myriad of cognitive processes that operate sequentially or in parallel, in complex permutations in order to satisfy these primary constraints. The consequence of this entire cognitive activity is a response to the environmental stimuli, which is the observed as the behavior of the individual.
Finally, the resulting behavior is feed backed into the memory; it modifies the existing perceptual knowledge, seeds a new one or the stimuli and its response is simply ignored Dimensions of cognitive psychology The cognition can be characterized by considering the process itself and its robustness.
At a higher level of abstraction, the thinking can be characterized as rational or emotional, while its robustness is determined by it stability.
Rational Vs Emotional Thinking Rational thinking is a response based on process of logical reasoning; it involves some form of mathematical or statistical knowledge where the process has implicit proof of its validity. Attribution is one of the rational processes that involve determining the reason or cause of an observed behavior.
Emotional thinking is a response based on how a person feels about the object in question. Neurologically, emotions follow a short cut pathway to limbic response, bypassing the other cognitive thought processes.
It can be considered as most primitive response when dealing with incomplete and uncertain sensory data. However, emotions have considerable influence on decision making and other cognitive processes even with existence of alternate rational reasons.
Stable Vs Evolving Experiences Every stimuli creates a response which is stored in the long-term memory, repetition of the same stimuli over a period of time, hard wires the response. These patterns of stimuli and response form a stable section of our cognitive processes, thus as the person ages, more and more responses get hard-wired.
On the other hand, stimuli that have little or no previously recorded responses are in the evolutionary stage, the response might change depending upon the cumulative degree of success of the previous responses.
In the organizational social system, the relationship between manager and the employees is not unidirectional but bidirectional.Development of Personality in Early and Middle Adulthood: Big Five dimensions stops or slows in middle adulthood, as predicted by the five-factor theory, or whether change is ongoing Just as individual differences in personality lead individuals toward different experiences that .
The Big Five Personality Traits Model measures five key dimensions of people's personalities: Openness: sometimes called "Intellect" or "Imagination," this measures your level of creativity, and your desire for knowledge and new experiences.
Personality and Individual Differences 51 () – Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Personality and Individual Differences retention involves processing information so that the main ideas are memorized with the goal of doing well on tests rather than.
The individual assignment is to individually write an essay of no more than words in which you critically reflect on the role of individual differences in your .
The 5-factor model (Big Five), is a personality matrix including both variables and factors. Variables are specific personality traits, with 30 separate traits organised into five domains, openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism.
Thus, in the Five-Factor Model, you need five scores to describe most of an individual’s personality. In the Appendix to this module, we present a short scale to assess the Five-Factor Model of personality (Donnellan, Oswald, Baird, & Lucas, ).