Li also means religious rites which establish relations between humanity and the gods. According to Stephan Feuchtwang, rites are conceived as "what makes the invisible visible", making possible for humans to cultivate the underlying order of nature. Correctly performed rituals move society in alignment with earthly and heavenly astral forces, establishing the harmony of the three realms—Heaven, Earth and humanity.
Buddhism Hinduism No "value judgement" is implied by this list. There are adjectives with both positive and negative connotations which describe both ends of this spectrum.
From an academic, comparative religions viewpoint, there is no basis for "prescribing" whether it is better for a religion to be highly unified, cohesive, monolithic, and lacking in internal religious diversity, or whether it is better to be fragmented, schismatic, diverse, multifaceted and abounding in variations on the same theme.
In a practical sense, most people actually practice only one form of whatever religion they belong to. Buddhism, for example, if viewed as a whole, can be understood to have a large amount of internal variation, including the Theravada and Mahayana branches, all of their sub-schools, various revivalist sects, as well as Tibetan and modern Western forms.
But most actual Buddhists are not actually involved in all of these; rather they practice one, internally cohesive, fairly unified form, such as the Geluk order of Tibetan Buddhism, or Japanese Amida-Buddha worship. How is classification done for official government figures?
It is important to note that data for the size of various religions within a given country often come from government census figures or official estimates. Such governmental endeavors are interested primarily in physical population demographics, such as how many people live in a household and how many telephones there are per person.
These studies are not theological treatises.
They merely classify Hindus as all people who call themselves Hindu, Muslims as all people who call themselves Muslim, Christians as all people who call themselves Christian. From a sociological and historical perspective, most religions have arisen from within existing religious frameworks: For the purposes of defining a religion we need to have some cutoff point.
Should Sikhism be listed as a Hindu sect as in many older textbooksor a world religion in its own right?
To manage this question we have chosen once again to use the most commonly-recognized divisions in comparative religion texts. These definitions are primarily sociological and historical, NOT doctrinal or theological in nature.
We recognize that within many religious traditions there are deeply felt arguments for excluding certain groups from their description of their religion.
For example, councils of Muslim leaders have voted to no longer accept Ahmadis as valid Muslims, although Ahmadis consider themselves orthodox Muslims. Many Evangelical Protestants churches exclude all non-Evangelical or non-Protestant groups from their definitions of Christianity.
On the other hand, some Hindu writers are so inclusive that they claim as Hindus adherents of any religion that arose in a Hindu environment, including Buddhists, Jains and Sikhs. These definitions are theological in nature and of little use in this statistical context.
Groups such as Rastafarians, Mandeans, Tenrikyo, and the Church of Scientology are too small, too new or too unimportant in world history to be included in most surveys of "major world religions.
Does the faith group consider itself to be part of or the definitive version of a larger religion? Does the larger religion consider the faith group to be part of its tradition? If the answer to both of these questions is no, then the faith group is probably a distinct religion.
If the answer to both questions is yes, the faith group is a division within the larger religion and thus not a world religion, but a division of a world religion.
For example, Tenrikyo arose in the s in Japan in a Shinto context. The founder explained that her new revelations came from various Shinto kami gods.
Thus, Tenrikyo was classified by the Japanese ministry of religion as a Shinto sect for about one hundred years. Then the leaders of Tenrikyo asked that the faith no longer be classified as a Shinto faith.
These books can only have a limited number of chapters. Based on these facts and because we have no limit on the number of religions we can include on this listwe include Tenrikyo as a distinct religion. Even fairly contemporary and progressive writers have a "youth cut-off" requirement for their listings of major world religions.
Many writers will classify newer movements as NRMs "New Religious Movements"and reserve the label of "world religion" for "long established" religions.Confucianism.
Confucius (Kong Zi) lived from to BC in the state of Lu (in modem Shandong province). He came from a family of officials and his concern was with the restoration of the Way (Dao) of the ancient sages.
|Chinese Religions||Neither principle is considered subordinate to the other; each complements the other and is capable of expressing both female and male characteristics.|
|Confucius, K'ung-fu-tzu||Li also means religious rites which establish relations between humanity and the gods.|
Naturalistic epistemology is an approach to the theory of knowledge that emphasizes the application of methods, results, and theories from the empirical sciences. It contrasts with approaches that emphasize a priori conceptual analysis or insist on a theory of knowledge that is independent of the.
Alternative summary listings of major world religions and numbers of adherents: Christian Science Monitor (): Top 10 Organized Religions in the World Encyclopedia Britannica's Adherents of All Religions by Six Continents.
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Before entering upon an explanation of the teachings of the Rosicrucians, it may be well to say a word about them and about the place they hold in the evolution of humanity.. For reasons to be given later these teachings advocate the dualistic view; they hold that man is a Spirit enfolding all the powers of God as the seed enfolds the plant, and that these powers are being slowly unfolded by a.
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